Or, the sex/gender difference which can be not just one?
(This post includes research from my exemplary graduate associate, Lucia Lykke. )
Not long ago I had been corrected by another sociologist: “Phil – ‘female’ and ‘male’ refer to sex that is one’s maybe perhaps not gender. ”
Feminists — including feminist sociologists — have made crucial progress by drawing the conceptual distinction between intercourse and sex, with intercourse the biological and gender the social groups. With this, perhaps, we could observe that gendered behavior had not been just a manifestation of sex groups — related to your term “sex roles” — but a socially-constructed collection of methods layered together with a crude base that is biological.